Cancer cell is our own cell. Normally, we did not born with a cancer cell. It was turned into one during our tortuous life journey. That is, a switch was flipped, and a cancer was turned on. Only if we know this switch mechanism, we can stop its switching.

Today, scientific community does not truly understand this cancer cell switching mechanism, but we know some facts about morphogenesis.

   1. Our complex organ system came from a replication process which starts out from one single fertilized egg.
   2. This replication process starts out as identical replication. When we separate 16 replicated cells (at 4th generation), they will become 16 (identical) individuals.
   3. After this identical replication process produces about 4000 cells, the future generation cells will begin to differentiate; some become toe nails; other become brain neurons. The replication process is no longer identical globally while toe nail cell still replicates into a toe nail.

So, what happened? Was the replication process changed? Were cells changed? One fact we know very well is that this change is a clock work, and it is not an accident, nor by chance. It always happens at midblastula stage.

   1. Before midblastula stage, cell grows into a ball-like mass, like a branch of grapes.
   2. At midblastula stage, the further growth produces two movements.
          * The grape-ball begins to hallow, a hallow ball-center is created. This hallow ball is called midblastula.
          * Then, the cells around the equator of midblastula begin to move (flow) into the hallow center. This movement transforms the hallow ball into a donut-shaped object. This donut has three regions, the external surface (the hallow ball surface), the internal surface, and the boundary of the two surfaces. That is, midblastula movement divides the embryo into three parts, the mesoderm, the endoderm and the ectoderm. The mesoderm gives rise to most of the body, including the muscles, the bones and the body wall. The endoderm produces a digestive tract as well as various other organs. The ectoderm develops into a nervous system.

These are the facts which were well-understood by 1990s. Obviously, cells begin to differentiate when these two movements have begun. Yet, we have two questions.

   1. What is the change mechanism?
   2. How does a cell know its mission, its destiny, such as it is going to be a toe nail.

Scientists did the following experiments with animals.

    * After differentiation (right after the midblastula movement), a small patch of potential thumb cells is transplanted to the buttock area, and a thumb will be grown out of the buttock.
    * Some cells are removed right before midblastula movement, they are then transplanted to a different area (such as the forearm area), and they will become part of the forearm.

We get three conclusions from these two experiments.

   1. When a cell has selected its mission, its destiny will not be changed.
   2. An un-decided cell can be given a destiny by its neighbors.
   3. A cell (un-decided) finds out its destiny by a Topological command. When an area is designated to be the leg topologically, and when a cell (un-decided) moves to (or be transplanted to) that topological area, it will become a part of the leg.

The aboves are facts. From these facts, we are able to develop a theory about cell switches and cell switching mechanism.
First, four postulates. Normally, postulate is also a fact, but it is listed as postulate in a theory.

   1. Two differentiated cells have identical DNA or genes. This is, in fact, a fact.
   2. There is only one replication process. This is a postulate. For me, two different replication processes (one identical, the other for differentiation) will be too confusion for the body to manage.
   3. Every gene has a switch. It can be switched on or off. The default setting of every gene is set at "OFF". Genes are switched to ON during the growing and the life journey of their carrier. This is a postulate. Today, scientists do not know what gene switch is. But, during the midblastula movement, it is a fact that cells differentiate when different switches were turned to ON.
   4. Only a small number of our genes (about 20%) were switched to ON during our life journey. In 2003, the sequencing of human genes was completed. Scientists discovered that 80% of our genes does not perform any function or any job at all. They act like parasites taking free rides for a great life journey.

Second, the theory predictions:

   1. We all have cancer genes. For most of us, those cancer genes were set at OFF at our birth.
   2. Those cancer genes could be turned to ON.
   3. We are able to prevent those cancer genes to be switched ON.

Three, my Model to explain:

    * What is gene switch?
    * What is Topological command?
    * Why are there dormant genes? And, what are they?

   1. What is gene switch?
      When you are reading this page, you are one of the computer and Internet generation. You know about website, more or less. So, I will use the websites as the Model.
      Now, website A has three genes:
         1. Tao of exercise
         2. Tao of meditation
         3. Tao of sex
      Now, website A (WA) replicates into website B (WB) and website C (WC). Of course, WA, WB and WC are identical. We all know that every website has a switch, the index.html. For WA, when this website switch is on (or points at) the gene (Tao of exercise), WA is a site (cell) of exercise. For WB, if the website switch is on the gene of Tao of meditation, it is a site (cell) of meditation. So, although site (cell) A, B and C have identical genes, they are different sites (cells) when a different gene was turned on first. Today, scientists do not know what the actual gene switch is.
      Well, the web gene can be turned on another way, a LINK. For example:
          * WA = index.html (Tao of exercise) ===> (link) Tao of sex
          * WB = index.html (Tao of exercise) ===> (link) Tao of meditation
          * WC = index.html (Tao of sex) ===> (link) Tao of meditation ===> (link) Tao of exercise ===> (link) index.html
         1. These three cells are different although they have identical genes.
         2. Only WC is a fully developed cell.
      From this example, we know that the web gene itself has no switch on it. Yet, it can be switched On. Any scientist argues that no actual switch is found on gene and thus the gene-switch theory must be denied is just denying himself. A gene can be switched to ON by a command from another gene.

      My web gene model fully explains the cell differentiation mechanism. And, this will be the basis of how to prevent the cancer gene to be switched on.

   2. What is Topological command?
      Why a cell (un-differentiated) was forced to become a part of toe nail when it moved to (or transplanted to) that topological area, designated to be the toe? Well, the reason is also very simple. I am going to use a module house as the Model. Let's imagine about a room module. It has four sides. Every side has a designated door area and a window area. Every module is identical.
         1. Module A faces south. A door and a window are cut out on the south side wall. A door is cut out for the east and north side. A window is cut out for the west side.
         2. Module B is placed on the east side of module A. A door is cut out on the west side to march with module A's door on the east. A window is cut out on B's south and east side. A door is cut out on the north.
         3. Module C is placed right behind the Module B. A door is cut out on the south side to march B's door on north. C's east and north are windows. C's west is a door.
      With these three modules, there is a house. The front door faces South, the back door faces West. All three rooms are connected and with windows. These three identical cells (modules) are forced into three different cells by the topological requirements. Which door and which window to be cut out are determined by the other cells topologically. Those doors and windows are genes. They were set at OFF and are turned on by the topological requirement of other cells.

      My module room model fully explains another gene switch mechanism. By knowing how to switch on genes, we are able to prevent the cancer genes to be switched ON.

   3. Why are there dormant genes? And, what are they?
      Per my theory, the default setting for all genes is set at OFF position. Before a gene is switched ON, it is dormant. However, the term of dormant gene differs from the above meaning. The major discovery of the human gene sequencing research is that 80% of the human genes has no designated function. They do not contribute any kind of input (or control) to our lives' functions or activities. Well, they do get replicated every time when cell replicates. They are also passed on to the next generation from our sex reproduction. In a precise sense, they are free riders, get all the benefits as life forms without doing any job in return, at all. Are they simply just some friendly parasites. If they can stay friendly forever or stay dormant forever, there won't be any cancer. In my theory, all these dormant genes can be viewed as cancer genes, some are benign, some malicious. Now, what are dormant genes is defined. But, why and how they come about? Can we ever get rid of them?

      No. The straight answer is a big NO. We can never get rid of those dormant genes, regardless of how much the genetic technology advances, 10 years from now, or even one million years from now. The reason is very simple. They have earned the rights to be part of our life.

      Again, I am going to use the website model to explain this.
      In my web site, there are two types of files. One is a web page which can be switched on to become a visible web page. The other is a data file which can be used by a web page. Of course, a different data file can make a web page looks different. Both kinds of files are genes of my website, and their default settings are both set at OFF position.

      Of course, my website needs to be updated all the time. There are two ways to update it. One, I revise a file. Another way is to make a new file. As a webmaster, I often do not delete the old file when I am making a new one, and there are a few good reasons for this practice.
         1. There are some good features in the old file. Although I don't need them now, they can still be useful when a situation arises. And, I don't have to re-invent them when I need them again.
         2. There are some major mistakes in the old file. It is simpler to keep the bad file as a historical record, instead of writing a new history book.
         3. It is not harmful to my website when I de-links it. It is just a tiny little file.
      Now, there is a free rider in my website. Very soon, it is not the only one any more. There will be many. At least 5 % of files in my website are free riders now. And now, it becomes a job if I want to clean those free riders out.

      When I am developing a new website while I need part of the old website, I will simply copy the entire old site to the new site. Believe me, this is much easier than to copy the right portion of the site precisely. Those free riders take another free ride. Seemingly, the free rider is just a harmless small file (a dormant gene). But, it could and can come alive, and things can turn ugly.

      When these free riders are spreading to 4 or 5 sites, I will lose track on them. One day, I revise a free rider A (FRA) in website D (WD). FRA is, of course, not harmful for WD. A few days later, I merge (married) website B (WB) and WD, and the FRA of WD is over-written by the FRA of WB. The dormant FRA of WB comes alive in the new site. What will happen to the new site? Only FRA of WB knows.

      This very simple website model explains:
         1. What dormant genes are?
         2. Why are there dormant genes?
         3. One path way of how a dormant gene comes alive.

In addition to the gene mixing by sex, dormant gene can come alive in many other ways. By knowing of how those dormant genes can be switched on, we are able to prevent that switching. This will be discussed in, Switching off cancer cells (II)

Copyright © 2005 by Tienzen (Jeh-Tween) Gong

Anti-aging and Body meridians